James Pappas is an Associate Professor in the Spears School of Business at Oklahoma State University. His research focuses on strategy making from the middle management level in organizations as well as management control systems. His work has been published in Journal of Management Studies, Industrial Marketing Management, Healthcare Management Review and the Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management. Before coming to Oklahoma State University, he worked at State Street Bank and Trust, Mayo Medical Center, Arthur Andersen, and Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Pappas is currently serving as the Department Head of Management.